Volume 55, Number 3, May-June 2021
|Page(s)||833 - 885|
|Published online||05 May 2021|
Stable approximations for axisymmetric Willmore flow for closed and open surfaces★
Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
2 Fakultät für Mathematik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany
3 Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 12 March 2021
For a hypersurface in ℝ3, Willmore flow is defined as the L2-gradient flow of the classical Willmore energy: the integral of the squared mean curvature. This geometric evolution law is of interest in differential geometry, image reconstruction and mathematical biology. In this paper, we propose novel numerical approximations for the Willmore flow of axisymmetric hypersurfaces. For the semidiscrete continuous-in-time variants we prove a stability result. We consider both closed surfaces, and surfaces with a boundary. In the latter case, we carefully derive weak formulations of suitable boundary conditions. Furthermore, we consider many generalizations of the classical Willmore energy, particularly those that play a role in the study of biomembranes. In the generalized models we include spontaneous curvature and area difference elasticity (ADE) effects, Gaussian curvature and line energy contributions. Several numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our developed numerical methods.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 65M60 / 65M12 / 35K55 / 53C44
Key words: Willmore flow / Helfrich flow / axisymmetry / parametric finite elements / stability / tangential movement / spontaneous curvature / ADE model / clamped boundary conditions / Navier boundary conditions / Gaussian curvature energy / line energy
© EDP Sciences, SMAI 2021
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