Volume 55, Number 5, September-October 2021
|Page(s)||2365 - 2419|
|Published online||21 October 2021|
Existence of solutions and continuous and semi-discrete stability estimates for 3D/0D coupled systems modelling airflows and blood flows
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France
2 Inria, 2 rue Simone Iff, 75012 Paris, France
3 ULB, Faculté des Sciences, Campus de la Plaine - CP 213, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
4 Université de Paris, MAP5 (CNRS UMR 8145) & FP2M (CNRS FR 2036), 45 rue des Saints-Pères, 75270 Paris Cedex, France
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 1 September 2021
In this paper we analyse geometric multiscale models arising in the description of physiological flows such as blood flow in arteries or air flow in the bronchial tree. The geometrical complexity of the networks in which air/blood flows lead to a classical decomposition in two areas: a truncated 3D geometry corresponding to the largest contribution of the domain, and a 0D part connected to the 3D part, modelling air/blood flows in smaller airways/vessels. The fluid in the 3D part is described by the Stokes or the Navier–Stokes system which is coupled to 0D models or so-called Windkessel models. The resulting Navier–Stokes–Windkessel coupled system involves Neumann non-local boundary conditions that depends on the considered applications. We first show that the different types of Windkessel models share a similar formalism. Next we derive existence results and stability estimates for the continuous coupled Stokes–Windkessel or Navier–Stokes–Windkessel problem as well as stability estimates for the semi-discretized systems with either implicit or explicit treatment of the boundary conditions. In all the calculations, we pay a special attention to the dependency of the various constants and smallness conditions on the data with respect to the physical and numerical parameters. In particular we exhibit different kinds of behavior depending on the considered 0D model. Moreover even if no energy estimates can be derived in energy norms for the Navier–Stokes–Windkessel system, leading to possible and observed numerical instabilities for large applied pressures, we show that stability estimates for both the continuous and semi-discrete problems, can be obtained in appropriate norms for small enough data by introducing a new well chosen Stokes-like operator. These sufficient stability conditions on the data may give a hint on the order of magnitude of the data enabling stable computations without stabilization method for the problem. Numerical simulations illustrate some of the theoretical results.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 76Z05 / 76D07 / 65M60 / 74H15
Key words: Stokes / Navier–Stokes / Windkessel models / implicit/explicit schemes / energy estimates / stability analysis / airflows / blood flows
© The authors. Published by EDP Sciences, SMAI 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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