Volume 57, Number 6, November-December 2023
|3483 - 3498
|20 December 2023
Third-order exponential integrator for linear Klein–Gordon equations with time and space-dependent mass
Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
2 Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 31 October 2023
Allowing for space- and time-dependence of mass in Klein–Gordon equations resolves the problem of negative probability density and of violation of Lorenz covariance of interaction in quantum mechanics. Moreover it extends their applicability to the domain of quantum cosmology, where the variation in mass may be accompanied by high oscillations. In this paper we propose a third-order exponential integrator, where the main idea lies in embedding the oscillations triggered by the possibly highly oscillatory component intrinsically into the numerical discretisation. While typically high oscillation requires appropriately small time steps, an application of Filon methods allows implementation with large time steps even in the presence of very high oscillation. This greatly improves the efficiency of the time-stepping algorithm. Proof of the convergence and its rate are nontrivial and require alternative representation of the equation under consideration. We derive careful bounds on the growth of global error in time discretisation and prove that, contrary to standard intuition, the error of time integration does not grow once the frequency of oscillations increases. Several numerical simulations are presented to confirm the theoretical investigations and the robustness of the method in all oscillatory regimes.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 35Q70 / 65D30 / 65J08 / 65M70 / 65N35
Key words: Klein–Gordon equation / time- and space-dependent input term / exponential integrators / highly oscillatory input term / Filon-type methods
© The authors. Published by EDP Sciences, SMAI 2023
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